Heteroatom-Modified Carbon Materials and Their Use as Supports and Electrocatalysts in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (A Review)

A. S. Pushkarev A. S. Pushkarev , I. V. Pushkareva I. V. Pushkareva , M. V. Kozlova M. V. Kozlova , M. A. Solovyev M. A. Solovyev , S. I. Butrim S. I. Butrim , J. Ge J. Ge , W. Xing W. Xing , V. N. Fateev V. N. Fateev
Российский электрохимический журнал
Abstract / Full Text

Supports of electrocatalytically active nanoparticles affect significantly the activity and stability of electrocatalysts for the hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions in membrane-electrode assemblies of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Currently, carbon blacks are mainly used as supports, which are characterized by a number of disadvantages, including insufficient stability under the fuel cells operating conditions. In this regard, alternative carbon nanomaterials are proposed for the role of the supports, among which graphene and its derivatives can be highlighted. Such materials are characterized by a high specific surface area, stability, electrical conductivity, and provide wide opportunities to control the properties of their surface due to its functionalization. This review summarizes the recent advances in the use of the closest analogues of graphene and its derivatives, functionalized with various elements, both as electrocatalysts and supports for electrocatalytically active nanoparticles for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (including those with the direct alcohol oxidation). The recent advances in the activity and stability of such nanomaterials and their based electrocatalysts under the conditions of characteristic electrochemical reactions (oxygen reduction, alcohol oxidation, etc.), as well as the special features of their application in the composition of membrane-electrode assemblies in the fuel cells are considered.

Author information
  • National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute,”, Moscow, Russia

    A. S. Pushkarev, I. V. Pushkareva, M. V. Kozlova, M. A. Solovyev, S. I. Butrim & V. N. Fateev

  • National Research University “Moscow Power Engineering Institute”, Moscow, Russia

    A. S. Pushkarev, I. V. Pushkareva, M. V. Kozlova, M. A. Solovyev & S. I. Butrim

  • Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (National Research University), Dolgoprudny, Russia

    A. S. Pushkarev

  • Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, PR China

    J. Ge & W. Xing

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