Тезисы
апрель 2019
Abstract / Full Text

Global contamination of the planet is the result of scientific and technological progress. In Ukraine, solid household waste is stored at polygons with a total area of almost 3 thousand hectares, industrial waste occupies 160 thousand hectares. Landfills occupy more than 7% of our country’s territory. Some of them are overloaded and do not meet environmental safety standards. About 30 million tonnes of toxic waste are classified as hazard classes 1-3.

In recent years, there have been attempts in waste utilization through recycling, regeneration, composting, production of composite materials, bioconversion of organic waste to produce biogas and bioethanol. Waste of raw materials, stuff and semi-finished products are used to obtain materials that can be used in construction, industry, agriculture and everyday life. Glass waste goes to the production of foam glass - a promising heat-insulating material. Wood waste after crushing and composting is used as organic fertilizer. Polymer waste is used as a binder for the production of thermoplastic tiles, which is strong, environmentally friendly, resistant to various climatic conditions, has a low specific weight and significant longevity.

When burning garbage, 25% of slag remains, which is spent on road construction, and the heat from its combustion is used to generate steam for municipal power plants. Shredded scrap of reinforced concrete structures and bricks can be used to fill the base of the road surface. When burning environmentally friendly waste, electricity or steam is generated that heats residential neighborhoods and enterprises.

Analysis of the problem of technical support for the collection, transportation and processing of solid household waste has shown the need for a systematic approach to its solution. The nodal points of this approach are reduction of waste; organization of its separate collection; transportation; waste sorting and recycling. It is necessary to solve the problem of used leaded batteries recycling.

It is advisable to use an automated reception complex for collecting plastic bottles, which could purchase them from the population and pay cash for each delivered package.

Due to man-made danger and environmental stress, it is advisable to reduce the number of landfills in Ukraine and to apply modern methods of environmentally sound waste disposal.