Determination of Paraquat Dichloride from Water Samples Using Differential Pulse Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry
Thanalechumi Paramalinggam , Abdull Rahim Mohd Yusoff , Munawar Saeed Qureshi , Zulfiqar Ali Shah , Palanivel Sathishkumar , Zulkifli Yusop , Muhammad Khalid , Faiz Mohammad Khokhar
Российский электрохимический журнал
Paraquat dichloride commonly used as herbicide was determined by differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry technique. Experimental parameters, such as pH, accumulation time, accumulation potential and initial potential were optimized. In this analysis, paraquat dichloride exhibited a well-defined tworeduction peaks at −0.35 and −0.90 V in the pH range from 2.0 to 12.0. The 0.04 mol L–1 BR buffer at pH 2.0 was found a suitable medium for electroanalytical determination of the paraquat dichloride. Interfering ions effect was not significant. Linear calibration plots for standard solutions of paraquat dichloride were obtained in the range of 0.25 to 1.75 × 10–6 mol L–1. Detection limit was 3.66 × 10–8 mol L–1. The optimized parameters were effectively applied for the determination of commercial paraquat dichloride and in artificial samples. Artificial samples were prepared by spiking paraquat dichloride into tap water and drinking water dispenser samples. The recovery value was 90.5% in drinking water dispenser samples and 91.7% in tap water samples at the concentration range of 1.00 × 10–6 to 1.75 × 10–6 mol L–1.
- Taylor, M.D., Klaine, S.J., and Carvalho, F.P., Pesticide Residues in Coastal Tropical Ecosystems: Distribution, Fate and Effects, New York: CRC Publ., 2002, p. 576.
- Jamaludin, N., Sham, S.M., and Ismail, S.N.S., Health risk assessment of nitrate exposure in well water of residents in intensive agriculture area, Am. J. Appl. Sci., 2013, vol. 10, p. 442.
- Boxall, A.B.A., New and Emerging Water Pollutants Arising from Agriculture, OECD Publ., 2012, p. 49.
- Dornellasa, R.M., Franchini, R.A.A., and Aucelio, R.Q., Determination of the fungicide picoxystrobin using anodic stripping voltammetry on a metal film modified glassy carbon electrode, Electrochim. Acta, 2013, vol. 90, p. 202.
- Inam, R., Can, E., and Demir, E., Electrooxidation and determination of methacetin (p-acetanisidide) by square wave voltammetry using multiwalled carbon nanotube electrode, Anal. Methods, 2013, vol. 5, p. 6338.
- Priyantha, N. and Weliwegamage, S., Interaction of thiram with glassy carbon electrode surfaces under applied potentials conditions, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 2008, vol. 3, p. 125.
- Sathishkumar, P., Palvannnan, T., Rajesh, R.V., and Boopathy, R., Effect of pesticide exposure in erythrocyte membrane bound acetylcholinesterase, New Biotechnol., 2009, vol. 25, p. 370.
- Raghua, P., Reddya, T.M., and Swamy, B.E.K., Development of AChE biosensor for the determination of methyl parathion and monocrotophos in water and fruit samples: a cyclic voltammteric study, J. Electroanal. Chem., 2012, vol. 665, p. 76.
- Ni, Y., Qiu, P., and Kokot, S., Simultaneous determination of three organophosphorus pesticides by differential pulse stripping voltammetry and chemometrics, Anal. Chim. Acta, 2004, vol. 516, p. 7.
- Erdogdu, G. and Titretir, S., Voltammetric determination of mesotrione at hanging mercury drop electrode, J. Anal. Chem., 2007, vol. 62, p. 777.
- Bromilow, R.H., Paraquat and sustainable agriculture, Pest. Manag. Sci., 2004, vol. 60, p. 340.
- Halfon, E., Galassi, S., Bruggemann, R., and Provini, A., Selection of priority properties to assess environmental hazard of pesticides, Chemosphere, 1996, vol. 33, p. 1543.
- Fernandez, M., Ibanez, M., Pico, Y., and Manes, J., Spatial and temporal trends of paraquat, diquat, and difenzoquat contamination in water from marsh areas of the Valencian community (Spain), Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 1998, vol. 35, p. 377.
- Sandhu, J.S., Dhiman, A., Mahajan, R., and Sandhu, P., Outcome of paraquat poisoning–a five year study, Indian. J. Nephrol., 2003, vol. 13, p. 64.
- Prasad, K., Winnik, B., and Thiruchelvam, M.J., Prolonged toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of paraquat in mouse brain, Environ. Health. Perspect., 2007, vol. 115, p. 1448.
- Winnik, B., Barr, D.B., and Thiruchelvam, M., Quantification of paraquat, MPTP, and MPP+ in brain tissue using microwave assisted solvent extraction (MASE) and high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2009, vol. 395, p. 195.
- Ritter, L., Solomon, K., and Sibley, P., Sources, pathways, and relative risks of contaminants in surface water and groundwater: a perspective prepared for the Walkerton inquiry, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health. A, 2002, vol. 65, p. 1.
- Jain, A., Verma, K.K., and Townshend, A., Determination of paraquat by flow-injection spectrophotometry, Anal. Chim. Acta, 1993, vol. 284, p. 275.
- Luna, J.R., Bernardo, M.L.D., and Garcia, M.Y., Determination of paraquat in urine samples by flowinjection analysis, Acta. Bio. Quim. Clin. Latinoam., 2008, vol. 43, p. 251.
- Ito, M., Hori, Y., and Fujisawa, M., Rapid analysis method for paraquat and diquat in the serum using ionpair high-performance liquid chromatography, Biol. Pharm. Bull., 2005, vol. 28, p. 725.
- Almeida, R.M.D. and Yonamine, M., Gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric method for the determination of the herbicides paraquat and diquat in plasma and urine samples, J. Chromatogr. B, 2007, vol. 853, p. 260.
- Niewola, Z., Benner, J.P., and Swaine, H., Determination of paraquat residues in soil by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, Analyst, 1986, vol. 111, p. 399.
- El-Harmoudi, H., Achak, M., and Farahi, A., Sensitive determination of paraquat by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry with chitin modified carbon paste electrode, Talanta, 2013, vol. 115, p. 172.
- Ye, X., Gu, Y., and Wang, C., Fabrication of the Cu2O/polyvinyl pyrrolidone-graphene modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for sensitive detection of herbicide paraquat, Sens. Actuators B, 2012, vol. 173, p. 530.
- Garcia, L.L.C., Figueiredo, L.C.S.F., and Oliveira, G.G., Square-wave voltammetric determination of paraquat using a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes within a dihexadecylhydrogenphosphate (DHP) film, Sens. Actuators B, 2013, vol. 181, p. 306.
- Niu, L.M., Liu, F., and Wang, W., Electrochemical behavior of paraquat on a highly ordered biosensor based on an unmodified DNA-3D gold nanoparticle composite and its application, Electrochim. Acta, 2015, vol. 153, p. 190.
- Farahi, A., Achak, M., and El-Gaini, L., Silver particles-modified carbon paste electrodes for differential pulse voltammetric determination of paraquat in ambient water samples, J. Ass. Arab. Univ. Basic Appl. Sci., 2016, vol. 19, p. 37.
- Tyszczuk-Rotko, K., Beczkowska, I., and Nosal-Wiercinska, A., Simple, selective and sensitive voltammetric method for the determination of herbicide (paraquat) using a bare boron-doped diamond electrode, Diam. Relat. Mater., 2014, vol. 50, p. 86.
- Abdelfettah, F., Mounia, A., and Laila, G., Electrochemical determination of paraquat in citric fruit based on electrodeposition of silver particles onto carbon paste electrode, J. Food Drug Anal., 2015, vol. 23, p. 463.
- Cristiane, K., Antonio, M.S., Luiz, J.H., and Marcio, B.F., Carbon paste electrode modified with biochar for sensitive electrochemical determination of paraquat, Electroanalysis, 2016, vol. 28, p. 764.
- Thanalechumi, P., Yusoff, A.R.M., and Yusop, Z., A simple voltammetric determination of metsulfuronmethyl in water samples using differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry, J. Pestic. Sci., 2017, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 39–44. doi doi 10.1584/jpestics.D16-086