апрель 2019

Liposoma as active components of transdermatic cosmetics

O. S. Pronkova , O. Yu. Vashkevych
Химия и современные технологии
Abstract / Full Text

The basis of cell membranes is the lipid matrix, formed by highly organized lipid ensembles. The main lipids that are part of the cellular matrix are phospholipids. Phospholipids are complex lipids containing in their composition polyhydric alcohol, phosphoric acid residue and fatty acid residues. They are the main components of biological membranes. A typical phospholipid molecule has a hydrophilic polar head and two hydrophobic tails.

In a water environment, phospholipids have the property to be organized in such a way that the hydrophilic heads are directed outward and in contact with water, and the tails are thus directed inward and only contact with the tails of the neighboring phospholipids. In this case, there are two types of formations − micelles and bimolecular layers. A separate case of a bimolecular layer is the liposomes involved in cellular foam cytosis.

In order for cosmetics to work, their active ingredients should penetrate the deep layers of the skin. Therefore, cosmetic developers conduct research and try to introduce into their structure any transdermal systems that will help "transport" active components. Liposomes have shown one of the highest results as "transport molecules".

The term "transdermal cosmetics" is very popular today. And above all it is connected with cosmetic products, which are positioned as regenerating, namely, promoting renewal, rejuvenation of the skin.

Liposomes are spherical formations (bubbles or vesicles) consisting of phospholipids. Inside them, there is hydrophilic medium, and when they get under the skin, they decompose and divide into fragments, thereby covering large areas of the skin.

Depending on the structure and size of the vesicles, they are classified:

− Poly-layered (multi-amylar) vesicles having a diameter of 5-10 microns and having from two to three hundred to several hundred bilayers;

− Small bilayer (monolamellar) vesicles, formed by a single bilayer and having a diameter of 20-50 nm;

− Large bilayer (monolamellar) vesicles, also formed by a single bilayer, but usually have a diameter of 50 to 200 nm, and sometimes even more.

One of the most popular ways to produce small monolamellar liposomes is the ultrasonic treatment of multimellar liposomal vesicles suspensions. Simple poly-layer vesicles can be obtained by simple mechanical shaking of the aqueous dispersion of edema lecithin.