For supercapacitors with sulfuric acid electrolyte, a promising carbon material was suggested, namely, activated carbon from waste wood. It was shown how the synthesis conditions of activated carbon affect its porous structure and electrochemical characteristics of supercapacitors on its basis. The changes in the porous material under different synthesis conditions were controlled using the highly informative limited evaporation method, which allows us to obtain complete information about the porous structure of the micro- and mesopores of the material within a relatively short period of time. The negative effect of the excess volume of macropores in the electrode on the capacity and energy based on the dry mass of electrodes was shown experimentally and analyzed. The properties of the synthesized material were compared with those of other carbon materials. The best samples of the developed material possess a specific electric capacity of over 390 F/g.