Technical carbon CH210 was processed by chemical reduction of the diazo derivative of anthraquinone for surface modification. The presence of anthraquinone groups on the carbon surface was confirmed by attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) IR spectroscopy. Carbon with the anthraquinone-modified surface was deposited on a glassy carbon support using a polymer binder. The behavior of the thus obtained catalyst in oxygen electroreduction in an alkaline medium was studied by the rotating disk electrode method. The kinetic characteristics of the reaction were determined: half-wave potential, limiting current, number of electrons, Tafel slope, exchange current, and charge transfer coefficient. Hydrogen peroxide is formed on the surface of the carbon–polymer composite at higher positive potentials than on technical carbon and glassy carbon electrodes. Therefore, the proposed material can be used as an effective electrocatalyst for this reaction.