Designed Novel Carbazole Based Electrolyte Additive for Overcharge Protection of Lithium‑Ion Batteries

A. R. Madram A. R. Madram , M. Zarandi M. Zarandi , A. Salimi Beni A. Salimi Beni , Y. Bayat Y. Bayat
Российский электрохимический журнал
Abstract / Full Text

9-Phenyl-9H-carbazole (9P9HC) organic monomer which contains phenyl moiety used as new overcharge protection additive in electrolyte of LiFePO4 based lithium‑ion batteries (LIBs) was investigated in this paper. The cyclic voltammetry experimental results showed that the 9P9HC monomer could be electro‑polymerized to form a conductive polymer on the cathode surface. Therefore, it could prevent the batteries from voltage run away during overcharge. The charge–discharge tests of the investigated LiFePO4/C batteries demonstrated that the 9P9HC additive could be control the investigated LIB voltage at the safe value less than 4.2 V. Furthermore, it was notable that 9P9HC has no significant impact on the charge–discharge performance of the investigated batteries at normal charge–discharge condition during 50 cycles.

Author information
  • Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, 15875-1774, Tehran, Iran

    A. R. Madram & Y. Bayat

  • Young Researchers and Elites Club, Qom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran

    M. Zarandi

  • Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Yasouj University, 75918-74831, Yasouj, Iran

    A. Salimi Beni

  1. Kulova, T.L., New electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (review), Russ. J. Electrochem., 2013, vol. 49, pp. 1–25.
  2. Jiang, H., Zhou, X., Liu, G., Zhou, Y., Ye, H., Liub, Y., and Han, K., Free-standing Si/graphene paper using Si nanoparticles synthesized by acid-etching Al–Si alloy powder for high-stability Li-ion battery anodes, Electrochim. Acta, 2016, vol. no. 188, pp. 777–784.
  3. Vargas, Ó., Caballero, Á., and Morales, J., Deficiencies of chemically reduced graphene as electrode in full Li-ion cells, Electrochim. Acta, 2015, vol. 165, pp. 365–371.
  4. Kulova, T.L., and Skundin, A.M., High-voltage materials for positive electrodes of lithium ion batteries (review), Russ. J. Electrochem., 2016, vol. 52, pp. 501–524.
  5. Marom, R., Francis Amalraj, S., Leifer, N., Jacob, D., and Aurbach, D., A review of advanced and practical lithium battery materials, J. Mater. Chem., 2011, vol. 21, pp. 9938–9954.
  6. Hofmann, A., Schulz, M., Indris, S., Heinzmann, R., and Hanemann, T., Mixtures of ionic liquid and sulfolane as electrolytes for Li-ion batteries, Electrochim. Acta, 2014, vol.147, pp. 704–711.
  7. Schaefer, J.L., Lu, Y., Moganty, S.S., Agarwal, P., Jayaprakash, N., and Archer, L.A., Electrolytes for high-energy lithium batteries, Appl Nanosci., 2012, vol. 2, pp. 91–109.
  8. Rao, Z. and Wang, S., A review of power battery thermal energy management (renew), Sust. Energ. Rev., 2011, vol. 15, pp. 4554–4571.
  9. Balakrishnan, P.G., Ramesh, R., and Prem Kumar, T., Safety mechanisms in lithium-ion batteries, J. Power Sources, 2006, vol. 155, pp. 401–414.
  10. Nurullah Ates, M., Allen, C.J., Mukerjee, S., and Abraham, K.M., Electronic effects of substituents on redox shuttles for overcharge protection of Li-ion batteries, J. Electrochem. Soc., 2012, vol. 159, p. 1057.
  11. Shui Zhang, S., A review on electrolyte additives for lithium-ion batteries, J. Power Sources, 2006, vol. 162, pp. 1379–1394.
  12. Xua, J., Thomas, H.R., Francis, R.W., Lumb, K.R., Wang, J., and Liang, B., A review of processes and technologies for the recycling of lithium-ion secondary batteries, J. Power Sources, 2008, vol. 177, pp. 512–527.
  13. Lee, M.-L., Li, Y.-H., Yeh, J.-W., and Shih, H., Improvement in safety and cycle life of lithium-ion batteries by employing quercetin as an electrolyte additive, J. Power Sources, 2012, vol. 214, pp. 251–257.
  14. Cha, C.S., Ai, X.P., and Yang, H.X., Polypyridine complexes of iron used as redox shuttles for overcharge protection of secondary lithium batteries, J. Power Sources, 1995, vol. 54, pp. 255–258.
  15. Feng, J.K., Ai, X.P., Cao, Y.L., and Yang, H.X., A highly soluble dimethoxybenzene derivative as a redox shuttle for overcharge protection of secondary lithium batteries, Electrochem. Commun., 2007, vol. 9, pp. 5–30.
  16. Li, S.L., Ai, X.P., Feng, J.K., Cao, Y.L., and Yang, H.X., Diphenylamine: a safety electrolyte additive for reversible overcharge protection of 3.6 V-class lithium ion batteries, J. Power Sources, 2008, vol. 184, pp. 553–556.
  17. Zhanga, Z., Zhanga, L., Schlueterb, J.A., Redferna, P.C., Curtissa, L., and Aminea, K., Understanding the redox shuttle stability of 3, 5-di-tert-butyl-1, 2-dimethoxybenzene for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries, J. Power Sources, 2010, vol. 195, pp. 4957–4962.
  18. Adachi, M., Tanaka, K., and Sekai, K., Aromatic compounds as redox shuttle additives for 4 V class secondary lithium batteries, J. Electrochem. Soc., 1999, vol. 146, pp. 1256–1261.
  19. Dahn, J.R., Junwei Jiang, Z., Moshurchak, L.M., Fleischauer, M.D., Buhrmester, C., and Krause, L.J., High-rate overcharge protection of LiFePO4-based Li-ion cells using the redox shuttle additive 2,5-ditertbutyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene, J. Electrochem. Soc., 2005, vol. 152, p. 1283.
  20. Dahn, J.R., Chen, J., and Buhrmester, C., Patent Application no. PCT/US2005/010993, 2004.
  21. Dahn, J.R., Chen, J., and Buhrmester, C., US Patent no. US7811710 B2, 2005.
  22. Zhang, L., Zhang, Z., and Amine, K., US Patent no. US20140234703 A1, 2012.
  23. Salimi Beni, A., Zarandi, M., Madram, A.R., Bayat, Y., Najafi Chermahini, A., and Ghahary, R., Synthesis and characterization of organic dyes bearing new electron-withdrawing group for dye-sensitized solar cells, Electrochim. Acta, 2015, vol. 186, pp. 504–511.