Статья
2019

Voltammetric Determination of Cefuroxime Axetil in Pharmaceuticals Using Graphene Oxide Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode and Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode


Sevilay Erdoğan Kablan Sevilay Erdoğan Kablan , Nuran Özaltın Nuran Özaltın
Российский электрохимический журнал
https://doi.org/10.1134/S1023193519030078
Abstract / Full Text

Two novel, economic, rapid, simple, sensitive and selective square wave voltammetric (SWV) methods have been developed for the determination of cefuroxime axetil (CEFA) in pharmaceutical preparations. Electrochemical reduction and oxidation of the substance on hanging mercury drop electrode and graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode were investigated by square wave voltammetric methods which employ scan rates up to 1000 mV/s or faster, allowing much faster determinations. For hanging mercury drop electrode, well-defined peak was obtained at –1.06 V vs. Ag/AgCl/4.6 M KCl in 0.1 M phosphateborate buffer pH 7.0, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) and linearity range were found 0.09, 0.26, and 0.26–15 μg mL–1, respectively. For modified glassy carbon electrode, well-defined peak was obtained at 1.30 V vs. Ag/AgCl/4.6 M KCl in Britton–Robinson buffer pH 2.0, LOD, LOQ and linearity range were found 2.70, 8.20, and 8.20–45 μg mL–1, respectively. According to validation studies, the developed SWV methods were found as accurate, precise, specific, sensitive, repeatable, rugged and robust. The developed and validated SWV methods were applied to the determination of CEFA in pharmaceutical formulations. The results were compared with those obtained by a published ultraviolet spectroscopic method and no difference was found statistically.

Author information
  • Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Hacettepe, 06100, Turkey

    Sevilay Erdoğan Kablan & Nuran Özaltın

References
  1. https://doi.org/www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/cefuro.htm. Accessed 13.08.15.
  2. Finn, A., Straughn, A., Meyer, M., and Chubb, J., Effect of dose and food on the bioavailability of cefuroxime axetil, Biopharm. Drug. Dispos., 1987, vol. 8, p. 519.
  3. Dollery, C.S., Therapeutic Drugs, Churchill Livingstone, 1999.
  4. Amir, S.B., Hossain, M., and Mazid, M., Development and validation of UV spectrophotometric method for the determination of cefuroxime axetil in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation, J. Sci. Res., 2013, vol. 6, p. 133.
  5. Pritam, J., Manish, P., and Sanjay, S., Development and validation of UV-spectrophotometric method for determination of cefuroxime axetil in bulk and in formulation, Int. J. Drug. Dev. Res., 2011, vol. 3, p. 318.
  6. Chaudhari, S., Karnik, A., Adhikary, A., Tandale, R., and Vavia, P., Simultaneous UV spectrophotometric method for the estimation of cefuroxime axetil and probenecid from solid dosage forms, Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 2006, vol. 68, p. 59.
  7. Game, M., Sakarkar, D., Gabhane, K., and Tapar, K., Validated spectrophotometric methods for the determination of cefuroxime axetil in bulk drug and tablets, Int. J. Chem. Tech. Res., 2010, vol. 2, p. 1259.
  8. Ingale, P.L., Dalvi, S.D., Jadav, D.D., Gudi, S.V., Patil, L.D., and Kadam, Y.A., Simultaneous estimation of cefuroxime axetil and potassium clavulanate-analytical method development and validation, Der pharma chem., 2013, vol. 5, p. 35.
  9. Pavankumar, K.P., Jagadeeswaran, T., Grace, M., Caroline, A., and Sivakumar, T., Spectrophotometric determination for the analysis of cefuroxime axetil in pharmaceutical dosage forms, Anal. Chem., 2013, vol. 13, p. 347.
  10. Sengar, M.R., Gandhi, S.V., Rajmane, V., Patil, U.P., and Gandhi, B.B., Simultaneous determination of cefuroxime axetil and potassium clavulanate in tablet dosage form by spectrophotometry, Res. J. Pharm. Technol., 2010, vol. 3, p. 260.
  11. Shelke, S., Dongre, S., Rathi, A., Dhamecha, D., Maria, S., and Dehghan, M.H.G., Development and validation of UV spectrophotometric method of Cefuroxime Axetil in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation, Asian J. Res. Chem., 2009, vol. 2, p. 222.
  12. Can, N.Ö., Altiokka, G., and Aboul-Enein, H.Y., Determination of cefuroxime axetil in tablets and biological fluids using liquid chromatography and flow injection analysis, Anal. Chim. Acta., 2006, vol. 576, no. 2, p. 246.
  13. Kumar, P.S., Jayanthi, B., Abdul, K., Prasad, U., Kumar, Y.N., and Sarma, P., A validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the estimation of cefuroxime axetil, Res. J. Pharm., Biol. Chem. Sci., 2012, vol. 3, p. 223.
  14. Sengar, M.R., Gandhi, S.V., Patil, U.P., and Rajmane, V.S., Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of Cefuroxime Axetil and potassium clavulanate in tablet dosage form, Int. J. Chem. Tech. Res., 2009, vol. 1, p. 1105.
  15. Ranjane, P.N., Gandhi, S.V., Kadukar, S.S., and Ranher, S.S., Simultaneous determination of cefuroxime axetil and ornidazole in tablet dosage form using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, Chin. J. Chromatogr., 2008, vol. 26, p. 763.
  16. Ingale, P.L., Dalvi, S.D., Jadav, D.D., Gudi, S.V., Patil, L.D., and Kadam, Y.A., Simultaneous determination of cefuroxime axetil and potassium clavulanate in pharmaceutical dosage form by RP-HPLC, Int. J. Pharm. Pharm Sci., 2013, vol. 5, p. 179.
  17. Ranjane, P.N., Gandhi, S.V., Kadukar, S.S., and Bothara, K.G., HPTLC determination of cefuroxime axetil and ornidazole in combined tablet dosage form, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 2010, vol. 48, p. 26.
  18. Krzek, J. and Dabrowska-Tylka, M., Simultaneous determination of cefuroxime axetil and cefuroxime in pharmaceutical preparations by thin-layer chromatography and densitometry, Chromatographia, 2003, vol. 58, p. 231.
  19. Altria, K. and Rogan, M., Reductions in sample pretreatment requirements by using high-performance capillary electrokinetic separation methods, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 1990, vol. 8, p. 1005.
  20. Raj, K.A., Determination of cefixime trihydrate and cefuroxime axetil in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms by electrophoretic method, Int. J. Chem. Tech. Res., 2010, vol. 2, p. 337.
  21. Beltagi, A., Determination of the antibiotic drug pefloxacin in bulk form, tablets and human serum using square wave cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetry, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 2003, vol. 31, p. 1079.
  22. Razak, O.A., Electrochemical study of hydrochlorothiazide and its determination in urine and tablets, Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 2004, vol. 34, p. 433.
  23. El-Hefnawey, G., El-Hallag, I. Ghoneim, I.E., and Ghoneim, M., Voltammetric behavior and quantification of the sedative-hypnotic drug chlordiazepoxide in bulk form, pharmaceutical formulation and human serum at a mercury electrode, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 2004, vol. 34, p. 75.
  24. Al-Ghamdi, A.F. and Bani-Yaseen, A.D., Electrochemical reduction of ciprofloxacin at the mercury electrode and its voltammetric determination in tablet and urine, Russ J. Electrochem., 2014, vol. 50, p. 355.
  25. El Mhammedi, M.A., Achak, M., and Bakasse, M., Square wave voltammetry for analytical determination of cadmium in natural water using Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2-modified platinum electrode, Am. J. Anal. Chem., 2010, vol. 1, p. 150.
  26. Wang J., Analytical Electrochemistry, John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
  27. O’Dea, J.J., Osteryoung, J., and Osteryoung, R.A., Theory of square wave voltammetry for kinetic systems, Anal. Chem., 1981, vol. 53, p. 695.
  28. Krause, M.S., Jr. and Ramaley, L., Analytical application of square wave voltammetry, Anal. Chem., 1969, vol. 41, p. 1365.
  29. Stojek, Z. and Osteryoung, J., Direct determination of chelons at trace levels by one-drop square-wave polarography, Anal. Chem., 1981, vol. 53, p. 847.
  30. Lin, S.R. and Feng, Q.S., Determination of chemical reaction rate constants preceding or following electron transfer by mechanical square wave polarography, Anal. Chem., 1982, vol. 54, p. 1362.
  31. Aleksić, M.M., Lijeskić, N., Pantic, J., and Kapetanovic, V.P., Electrochemical behavior and differential pulse voltammetric determination of ceftazidime, cefuroxime-axetil and ceftriaxone, FU Phys. Chem. Technol., 2013, vol. 11, p. 55.
  32. Stankovich, S., Dikin, D.A., Dommett, G.H., Kohlhaas, K.M., Zimney, E.J., Stach, E.A., Piner, R.D., Nguyen, S.T., and Ruoff, R.S., Graphene-based composite materials, Nature, 2006, vol. 442, p. 282.
  33. Lerf, A., He, H., Forster, M., and Klinowski, J., Structure of graphite oxide revisited, J. Phys. Chem. B, 1998, vol. 102, p. 4477.
  34. Huang, H.-P. and Jun-Jie, Z., Preparation of novel carbon-based nanomaterial of graphene and its applications electrochemistry, Chin. J. Anal. Chem., 2011, vol. 39, p. 963.
  35. Wang, X., Zhi, L., and Müllen, K., Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells, Nano Lett., 2008, vol. 8, p. 323.
  36. Li, J., Kuang, D., Feng, Y., Zhang, F., Xu, Z., and Liu, M., A graphene oxide-based electrochemical sensor for sensitive determination of 4-nitrophenol, J. Hazard. Mater., 2012, vol. 201, p. 250.
  37. Wang, Y., Li, Y., Tang, L., Lu, J., and Li, J., Application of graphene-modified electrode for selective detection of dopamine, Electrochem. Commun., 2009, vol. 11, p. 889.
  38. Wu, C., Sun, D., Li, Q., and Wu, K., Electrochemical sensor for toxic ractopamine and clenbuterol based on the enhancement effect of graphene oxide, Sens. Actuator B-Chem., 2012, vol. 168, p. 178.
  39. Guideline, I.H.T., Validation of analytical procedures: text and methodology, Q2 (R1), Proc. Int. Conf. on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Chicago, 2005.
  40. Hummers, W.S., Jr. and Offeman, R.E., Preparation of graphitic oxide, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1958, vol. 80, p. 1339.
  41. Kablan, S.E. and Özaltín, N., Investigation of electrochemical behaviour of cefuroxime axetil using hanging mercury drop electrode and graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode, J. Electroanal. Chem., 2017, vol. 785, p. 144.
  42. Green, J.M., Peer reviewed: a practical guide to analytical method validation, Anal. Chem., 1996, vol. 68, p. 305A.