Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by microwave irradiation, the corresponding technology was substantiated, and the properties and structure of the resultant CNTs were examined. The process flow diagram of the synthesis was described, and the microwave irradiation regimes for the catalytic systems based on ferrocenes (C10H10Fe) were substantiated. Information about the morphological features of the synthesized CNTs was derived and analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, as well as Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry methods. Considering great importance of CNTs in the modification of organosilicon matrices, studies on modification of polymers with the use of the synthesized CNTs were carried out. The uniformity of distribution of the CNTs in the polymer matrix was estimated, and the thermal conductivity of the organosilicon compound at different CNTs concentrations was investigated. The thermal conductivity was found to change from 0.2 to 0.32 W/(m °C), when the CNTs concentration is varied from 1 to 7%.