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Тезисы
апрель 2019
Abstract / Full Text

During the implementation of production activities, a person may be affected by one or a number of hazardous and harmful production factors. The production of starch products is no exception, the demand for which has increased significantly in recent years. The potentially hazardous factorsof starch productionare [1]:

1) Рhysical factors

− not fenced rotating parts of the equipment (nails, couplings, pulleys, etc.);

− poorly fixed details of the machineryto which efforts are applied;

− part of the installations, machinery, constructions which are located in the passage zone;

− hand tools and tools for small jobs;

− load-lifting devices;

− increased noise and vibration of poorly balanced or faulty machinery;

− high-pressure water jets, which are used when washing equipment;

− possible explosions when reaching explosive concentrations of dust in the air and the presence of a source of initiation(sparks, flames);

− unacceptable high or low pressure in the body of the device.

− current-conducting elements (wires, cables) and switching devices with damaged or removed insulators;

− metal parts of equipment, structures which can be exposed to dangerous voltage due to contact with current-conducting elements.

− open flame in case of fire (ignition);

− steam pipelines, condensate, hot water containers, and technological flows with high temperature;

− parts of the machinery, heated by the friction due to the lack of lubrication.

2) Chemical factors:

− acids and alkalis, their vapors or aerosols;

− sulphur dioxide;

− dust aerosols of mineral or organic origin.

In order to avoid the action of harmful substances on starch production, certain measures are taken. Protection against mechanical factors and injury is ensured by: compliance with the requirements regarding the size of the passages between the equipment; disappointment of equipment; equipment of transitional sites; warning signaling; using lifting mechanisms (trolleys, conveyors) for cargo transportation; the use of protective goggles in the performance of work, which is accompanied by flying debris, drops.

Protection against electric shock is provided by insulation of current-carrying parts, using protective electrical equipment, protected by grounding of electrical equipment. Power and signal wires should be placed in protected cabinets, which are located in separate rooms. Thunder protection is provided by lightning rods on buildings and structures.

Protection against thermal burns is ensured by insulation of equipment (surface temperature not more than 45°C), use of protective barriers and warning signaling.

When affected by aggressive chemicals (acids, alkalis) use 3-5% solution of acetic (citric) acid and 5% solution of baking soda to neutralize the action of alkali or hydrochloric acid, respectively. In production premises, it is necessary to have a first-aid kit with the necessary set of preparations and instructions for their use.

To prevent the occurrence of a dangerous situation in the workplace also use certain measures of collective protection. Operators should be in rooms remotely located from the main equipment and equipped with heating, air conditioners and drinking water containers. To combat vibration, increase the stiffness of the supporting structures, use massive foundations, vibration isolation, timely regulate and repair mobile and rotating parts of the equipment. The production premisesare equipped with forced ventilation, and the workplaces associated with the most intense discharge of dust − local suction. Equipment where there is a release of dust from dry products must have a closed type of performance. Filters with an open surface are equipped with exhaust umbrellas. In case of release of harmful gases and vapors (sulfur anhydride, etc.), a separate ventilation system is not installed on the equipment. Collectors for the storage of concentrated hydrochloric acid are connected to sewage neutralization plants for the absorption of chlorinated water.

References
  1. Occupational safety standards system. Dangerous and harmful working factors. Classification 12.0.003–15 (Межгосударственный стандарт ССБТ 12.0.003–2015 Опасные и вредные производственные факторы. Классификация) – Діє до 2020–01–01. – К : Мінбуд України, 2015. – 41 с.
  2. ДСТУ 3273-95. Безпека промислових підприємств. Загальні положення та вимоги. – Київ: Держстандарт України, 1995. – 16 с.
  3. Одарченко М.С. Основи охорони праці / А.М. Одарченко, В.І. Степанов, Я.М. Черненко. – Харків: Стиль-Издат, 2017. – 334с.