This review describes the application of nanomaterials for the individual and simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA), and ascorbic acid (AA). Scientists have worked over the past years to modify electrode surfaces by using different nanomaterials to improve the selectivity, limits of detection, and sensitivity of sensors. In this review, the authors have briefly discussed the nanomaterials that were extensively applied in the construction and modification of working electrode surfaces for the detection of DA, UA, and AA. The electrochemical detection of DA, UA, and AA were categorized into three main sections including the detection in the presence of interferents, individual detection and the simultaneous detection of these molecules. For the individual detection of DA, UA, and AA the lowest detection limit was achieved by a Au/PDDA–rGO sensor in the detection of UA in urine samples. A detection limit of 0.0008 µM with a wide linear range of 0.25 to 150 µM was recorded. In the simultaneous detection of DA, UA, and AA in serum and urine samples, a Fe3O4–SnO2–Gr sensor gives the lowest detection limits (0.0071 µM for DA, 0.005 µM for UA, 0.0062 µM for AA) with good linear range (0.02 to 2.8 µM for DA, 0.015 to 2.40 µM for UA, 0.1 to 23 µM for AA). In the case of the simultaneous detection of DA and UA in serum and urine samples, the lowest detection limits were obtained by Au–Pt sensor. The detection limits (0.006 µM for DA, 0.038 µM for UA) with good linear range (0.1 to 400 µM for DA, 1 to 1000 µM for UA).