The possibility of using carbon materials based on petroleum coke as the cheap and available active material for negative electrodes of lithium–sulfur rechargeable batteries is considered. The comparative studies of characteristics of lithium–sulfur cells with negative electrodes based on metal lithium, graphite, and petroleum coke are carried out. It is found that heat-treated petroleum coke can be successfully used as the active material for negative electrode of lithium–sulfur batteries with acceptable energy characteristics. All other conditions being the same, the lithium–sulfur cells with negative electrodes based on petroleum coke demonstrate the longer cyclability as compared with cells based on metal lithium or graphite. This is explained by the slower destruction of electrolyte components on the negative electrode during cycling of lithium–sulfur cells. It is shown that the use of negative electrodes based on petroleum coke in lithium–sulfur batteries allows their cyclability to be increased and their cost to be reduced.